Apr 19, 2015

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Genetic Engineering And Its Precise Techniques

 

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This breakthrough significantly offers better nutrition of crops and has lesser controversy than you could ever imagine. Genetic engineering, especially the conventional kind has caused some controversies. Recently, new techniques have been developed. The beauty of it is, we can now edit directly the genetic codes of plants. It would all depend on your goal; whether you can make a nutritious plant cope better with the climate that’s always changing. The benefits and how the editing is done has become precise allays concerns that could lead to widespread adoption.

 

Every crop’s genetic engineering relies on agrobacterium tumefaciens; that’s a bacterium that can transfer your desired DNA right into your target genome. The latter technique has been proven to be reliable. However, there are some who have fears. A large number of the community attested that this techniques works well and is not considered risky anymore. Agrobacterium is quite useful; techniques on precision and genome-editing have been continuously developed over the years.

 

Genetic-EngineeringThese are TALENS, ZFNs and the latest techniques are the CRISPR- Cas9: it undergoes evolution and becomes a type of bacteria that can defend itself against viruses. Furthermore, it uses a molecule (RNA) and then targets the DNA. Subsequently, it cuts down a sequence that’s user selected inside the target genome. Moreover, this capability will then disable some unwanted genes or have it modified in such a functionally indistinguishable way, isolating it from a mutation that’s natural. Through utilizing a recombination that’s homologous, this technique is often used to have newer DNA sequences inserted into the target genome with precision.

 

Genetic engineering has another aspect that appears to be has underwent a major advancement is the utilization of RNA interference, also referred to as RNAi. This has proven to be quite efficient in battling against fungal pathogens and viruses. In addition to that, it protects the plants from harmful insects and pests, thus lowering the usage of chemical pesticides. These viral genes were experimented to protect certain plants from viruses and there were no signs of any resistance for over ten years. RNAi can also be good for staple-food crops; it has shown effective protection from stem rust, blight, blast and even fusarium wilt.

 

Smaller farmers residing in developing countries will definitely benefit from these innovations. Moreover, due to its effectiveness, potential to boost incomes and ability to improve diets, genetic engineering became less controversial. People from all over the globe have slowly recognized these wonderful benefits. Precision in editing the target genome is less likely to allay fears. Overall, these innovative techniques are quite promising when talking about advancement in the agricultural field. Truly, it would be better if the crops can adapt to the climate and reducing the input of different aspects such as fertilizers and water.

 

In conclusion, through these innovations, our agriculture will have a brighter future. Growing crops in a way that can also help so much economically is an advantage. Now that genetic engineering has become less controversial, this new agenda must be put into consideration.

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Apr 19, 2015

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Distributed Manufacturing

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The future’s factory can be found online and also on everybody’s doorstep. Let’s turn our heads to distributed manufacturing; how our products are made and delivered. Traditional manufacturing brings together raw materials, fabricated and assembled in huge factories. They are crafted into products that are identical and then they are delivered to the customers. In this kind of manufacturing, the methods and raw materials are decentralized, making the final products manufactured closely to its final customer.

 

Essentially, the main idea is to have as much supply chain for the materials replaced through digital information. For example, in manufacturing a chair, the traditional way is to source some wood and fabricate it into forms inside a central factory. In distributed manufacturing, the cutting of the parts are digitally done and there are cutting tools that are computerized, referred to as CNC routers. Next, these parts will be assembled by a workshop of local fabrication or done by the consumer, turning them into fully finished products. In the US, one company has already started using this kind of manufacturing.

 

Currently, many users of this manufacturing form part of the do-it-yourself movement. They are enthusiasts who use their own 3-D printers and went ahead to making products using local materials. Elements of a different kind of thinking have emerged. People are becoming visionary in producing the products. Furthermore, every product can have an incredible evolutionary character. Designs can be creative, rather than centrally driven.

 

DM-icon1-300x300It is expected to have more efficient utilization of resources and centralized factories will have lesser wasted capacity. In addition to that, distributed manufacturing can lower the barriers of market entries through reducing the capital’s amount that is required to create the preliminary products and prototypes. Significantly, it must lower down the environment’s overall impact on manufacturing. The digital information has been delivered through the internet, instead of conveying them via rail, road or even water. The raw materials are being locally sourced, thus, reducing the energy needed for transportation.

 

Recently, though it has become more widespread, this kind of manufacturing will somehow disrupt those traditional labor markets, especially the economics in such area. The risks it poses include; difficulty in controlling and regulating medical devices that are manufactured remotely. The latter can be dangerous or illegal and it is a fact that distributed manufacturing cannot be applied to all the products out there. Still, traditional manufacturing have to be closely monitored due to some consumer goods that are quite complex.

 

On the brighter side, distributed manufacturing strongly encourages diversity in a broader sense. Today, this has been standardized. A company in the UK used personalized 3D printing designs and created houses that would suit its customers’ preferences. Different products features will have to serve various geographies and markets. Service and goods from different regions will not be served efficiently by settling with traditional manufacturing. In conclusion, distributed manufacturing may not totally replace the traditional way, but it can definitely serve most of the consumers better than the latter.

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Apr 19, 2015

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Consistent Artificial Intelligence Development

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Have you ever wondered what would happen if your computer learns on the job? AI or famously referred to artificial intelligence as the science behind every computer that does things we people can certainly do. Recently, AI has continued to advance significantly. People nowadays use smartphones, which recognizes your voice and have been using the technology in image-recognition, getting into the airports of queues. Moreover, there are cars that drive themselves and some drones are flying automatically. These are still being tested before everybody could use them. It’s quite fascinating how machines have been outperforming humans in their generation. Watson, a computer system with an artificial intelligence, was able to beat all of the human candidates in Jeopardy, a well-known quiz game.

 

AI is different from a normal hardware, because it’s software that can make a machine become intuitive. It can respond and perceive to a changing environment. Admittedly, humans have the vulnerable tendency to fail when it comes to coping with a changing environment. AI has taken itself further and is progressing into a level higher. It can automatically learn information in bulk. One perfect example is the NELL project, it’s a computer system that can read facts through accessing millions of web pages and even attempts on improving how it’s reading. In addition to that, it has the initiative to hone its competence in understanding to better prepare for the future.

 

20091204121447-1_0Robotics of the next generation and also the all new improved AI will significantly lead the productivity rates to go higher for machines, when they take over. They are proven to outdo what people can do in several human tasks. The evidence substantially suggests that cars driven by AI would definitely reduce incidents of collisions, injuries and deaths in road transports. This is due to the fact that machines are programmed to not make human errors. They do not have sight defects, concentration lapses and other shortcomings. Machines that are intelligent have faster access to loads of information. They have the capability to respond not getting affected by emotional biases. Moreover, they might do better in diagnosing diseases than medical professionals. Nowadays, the Watson system is being used in the oncology department to aid personalized treatments that are evidence based and also plays a great role in their diagnosis. It has been one of every cancer patient’s options.

 

Though there is a complete risk, especially with the sci-fi nightmares and dystopian stuff possibilities. Machines that are super intelligent may enslave us one day and this has been taken seriously by experts. They are working on several ways to prevent AI from falling down to its pitfalls. Knowing that computers will replace us someday projects the possibility that there are several remarkable changes in our economy. Jobs can be threatened and social inequalities can be exacerbated. Self driven cars make take away jobs. However, the new improved AI still values emotions, creativity and interpersonal relationships. The biggest challenge will be checking your perspective on what it means to be human.

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Apr 19, 2015

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Hydrogen Powered Zero Emission Vehicles

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Vehicles that are run by fuel have been so promising with their advantage over those that are powered by hydrocarbons or electricity. Recently, as technology continues its journey, most of the automotive companies are starting to reach a stage wherein there are more launches for consumers. The preliminary price ranges about seventy thousand US dollars. However, this would most likely come down together with the increase in volume. We should expect this to happen for the next couple of years.

 

Batteries needed to be charged from time to time, using a source externally that would take several hours to be completed. The cells of the fuel generate electricity directly with the use of a natural gas, that is hydrogen. Batteries and fuel cells combine in practice and those batteries that are storing it will generate electricity. Therefore, fuel-cell vehicles are hybrids and would also yield a braking that is regenerative. In addition to that, they recover energy right from the heat that’s already considered waste. Thus, making it a key in maximizing range and efficiency.

 

hydrogen-car-fuel-pump-flickrThose vehicles that are powered by fuel cells have a cruising range that’s remarkably long. The latter goes up to six hundred fifty kilometers for every tank. The fuel used can usually be just hydrogen gas compressed. The duration of a refill for some hydrogen fuel will only be about 3 minutes. The natural gas, hydrogen, is clean burning. It produces nothing more than water vapor as waste. Therefore, vehicles run by fuel cells and are using hydrogen will create a zero emission nature. Thus, making a very significant factor in reducing the rampant air pollution.

 

Studies have shown that there are tons of ways to produce more hydrogen and at the same time doing away the production of carbon emissions. Furthermore, it is a fact that there are sources of electricity that are renewable, even the wind and other solar sources are great tools in electrolyzing water. Though, in this process, the energy efficiency as a whole is quite low. Hydrogen, in high temperature reactors can be separated from water. Moreover, it can be fostered from fuels in the fossils like coals or even natural gases. The latter will result in carbon dioxide being sequestered and captured. Thus, it will not be released into the atmosphere.

 

Experts have been considering the production of hydrogen that’s cheap on a larger scale. Another significant challenge would be the scarcity of infrastructure that distributes hydrogen, which is greatly needed to meet the demands in replacing gas filling stations. Transporting hydrogen longer distances may also be not feasible economically nowadays. On the brighter side, techniques in storing hydrogen like liquid carriers that are organic don’t need a high-pressure storage. But, these innovative schemes will surely lower the expense of transport to longer distances and would definitely put the risks related inadvertent release and gas storage at ease.

 

It has been concluded that the number of this kind of vehicle on the roads will rise within a ten years. This is a very attractive prospect because they offer ultimate convenience in fueling and can provide sustainable benefits in personal transportation. To achieve it, however, would require the economical and reliable production of cheap hydrogen.

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